Usability of Intraoperative 3D TEE

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Despite increasing availability of 3D TEE educational resources and capable hardware in the operating rooms of high income nations, 3D TEE remains under-utilized at most centers. This is in spite of a growing list of established and evidence-based indication where 3D TEE has been shown to improve the quality and clinical value of the assessment.

  • How significant is the under-utilization? Where are the greatest missed opportunities?
  • What are the possible factors? What is the contribution of poor device usability (user interface, ergonomics, reliability) to this under-utilization?
  • How can usability of 3D TEE for the perioperative setting be improved?

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